Development of culture in Central Asia
Already in the IX century in the region the political power of the Arabs had somewhat subsided. The Board gradually local dynasties. But the Arab, Islamic to be exact. civilization has given a considerable impetus to the revival and then a powerful revival of cultural life here. It is generally assumed, a hundred and IX-XII centuries Central Asia was a period of early Renaissance.
Representatives of the region made a significant contribution to the human civilization. What were the factors that contributed to the takeoff?
By the end of 8 or early 9 century, the situation in the region has begun to stabilize. In the Arab Caliphate after the coming to power of the Abbasid dynasty had begun to understand better the importance of the development of science, of culture for social progress. The essence of religion, Islam also has directed people to knowledge, humanistic values.
Socio-economic interests of Central Asia also dictate the need of development of material and spiritual culture. The creation of centralized States of the Samanids, Karakhanids and Khorezm breeds the conditions for intensive development of Sciences. Many rulers sympathetic to spirituality and enlightenment and patronized the development of culture. Happens flourishing architecture (construction of mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, libraries). Cities are built in book bazaars, bathhouses, caravanserais all along the silk road.
Mamun Academy in Khorezm. Its revival in our time.
In Khorezm at the junction of the X-XI centuries almost 17 years under the rule of an educated and cultured ruler Abul Abbas Maymun. He patronized poets, scientists and artists. The Emperor gathers outstanding scientists from different fields of knowledge and creates a kind of ” Academy of Sciences “. The science temple was founded in 998 g In this research center has conducted studies on mathematics, astronomy, medicine, jurisprudence, history, philosophy, literature.
The development of natural Sciences (Muhammad Musa al-Khorezmi, Ahmad al-Fargani, Abu Raikhon Beruni, Abu Ali Ibn Sino ) Central Asia in these centuries has survived the era of its Renaissance Revival. With the names of scientists in the region in that period, are connected to major discoveries in science and technology.So, Muhammad al-Khwarizmi (783-850 years) was one of the first who laid the foundations for the revival of a new and powerful rise of science and culture. Having received primary education at home, began to aggressively study the various Sciences that have practical value. Nova in search of knowledge were in Baghdad, where in those years functioned Academy of Sciences. From more than 20 of his works have reached us only 10. In the twelfth century is the arithmetic of his work “the Book of addition and subtraction according to Indian way” was translated into Latin and since then became known in Europe. Al-Khwarizmi developed the simple numbers of “Arab” instead of the Roman complex. Another work of al-Khwarizmi devoted to algebra. It was very voluminous work al-Khwarizmi’s astronomy. It consisted of 37 chapters and was accompanied with 116 tables.
In the essay al-Khwarizmi in geography provides the coordinates of the HS 2402 childbirth, seas, mountains, Islands, rivers. It was the first geograficka work, created in the middle ages.
Another great scientist-encyclopaedist was Ahmad Fergani (797-865 years) known primarily as an astronomer, mathematician and geographer. Born in the Ferghana valley, studied in Merv, then lived in Khorezm, Damascus and Baghdad. On the basis of new scientific data al-Fergani proved that the earth is round. Widespread fame brought him a book “a Book of celestial movements and the arch of the science of the stars.” Has scientific interest and his book “the Names known on earth, of countries and cities and their climatic features”.A prominent scientist-encyclopedist Abu Rayhan Beruni was born in 973 near the capital of Khorezm Kate (now mountains. Beruni). At 22, Biruni was the first in Central Asia creates the globe. Zhuo writes, “Chronology”. Wrote the book ” India “, where he collected interesting information on Indian philosophy, history, science. In the book “Geodesy” contains important information on astronomical knowledge, mathematics, and the hypothesis of the Earth’s rotation around the Sun. A treatise on “Mineralogy” gives a description of many minerals, methods of their determination and the location information. Range of scientific interests of al-Beruni unusually wide, it is easier to calculate than not doing Beruni than to transfer areas of knowledge, which he did.Abu Ali Ibn Sina was born in 980 near Bukhara G.. I was in school in Bukhara. In 10 years knew the Koran by heart, 13 learned the basics of mathematics, philosophy, logic, law. Becoming a qualified healer. For 17 years he scientist becomes established and enjoys great reputation as a physician. The total number of scientific publications exceeds 450, until we reached about 160. The world fame of Ibn Sina brought classic consolidated work on medicine, ” Canon of medical science “. The development of the social Sciences (Abu Nasr al-Farobi, Narshakhi, etc.) a Huge contribution to the development of social thought has made Abu Nasr al-Farobi. Europeans believe that one of the most important of his achievements is “to preserve and reproduce them philosophical heritage of antiquity”. Abu Nasr was born in 873 in the town Fareb (Syr Darya), studied and improved his knowledge in Shash (Tashkent ), Samarkand . Bukhara . in Iran. Studied languages. To him belong the works on the administration of the state.
His works number more than 160 in all branches of knowledge. Farobi wrote detailed commentaries on Aristotle’s works .In the considered historical period of 9-12 century – lived and worked writers, linguists whose work played a crucial role in the formation of the Uzbek and Tajik languages, enriching their vocabulary, as well as in the development of oral national creativity, the creation of national epics, dastans.