East Asia

 

East Asia is the Eurasian outskirts, facing the Pacific ocean. It stretches from the Soviet Far East in the North to southern China. Eastern Asia also includes Sakhalin island, the Kuril, the Japan, Taiwan, Hainan.

In East Asia there is no structural-geomorphological unity. Its mainland is an ancient land, within which the medium fold-hat mountain combined with accumulative plains. Islands and their surrounding sea belong to the Pacific zone, where the dip of the oceanic lithosphere of the Pacific plate under the continental margin of the Eurasian plate and lying in front of her island arc. This belt is marked by the strong development of seismology and volcanism.

The natural integrity of the East Asia define the characteristics of its climate and the organic world.

The basic pattern of climate formation is the East Asia monsoon circulation, creating a marked difference between wet cold and dry warm seasons. East Asia lies in the temperate and subtropical zones, and in the South sets in the tropical belt and temperatures in its range in a direction from North to South vary, but the main features of the monsoon climate persisted throughout. Massonnet the climate that can be considered the most striking feature of East Asia has left an indelible imprint on almost all sides of its nature, and on the lives and economic activities of the population. Her other feature — intensive cyclonic activity along the tropical and polar fronts, causing a catastrophic power hurricanes (typhoons).

The climate of East Asia did not undergo large and abrupt changes during the Cenozoic, therefore, is not changed and the conditions of formation of the organic world. In regard to flora and fauna characteristic of Eastern Asia the great antiquity and species diversity, mixing of temperate and subtropical and even tropical elements throughout it.

East Asia belongs to the most long and densely populated parts of Eurasia; it is characterized by a long and profound change in the nature of man and widespread anthropogenic landscapes.

The most important element of nature in East Asian marginal sea of the Pacific ocean lying between the mainland and the lights of the East Asian Islands. Deep basins of these seas together with island arcs and trenches of the Pacific ocean has experienced significant subsidence at the boundary of the Neogene and the anthropo-gene.

Marginal seas lie partly within the limits of the continental shelf, which reaches its greatest width between 20 and 40° N. lat. Occupying a position between the greatest on Earth, a continent and an ocean, sea East Asia are exposed to monsoon circulation, which largely depends on their mode. On the other hand, deeply divided the coast of mainland sea have a great influence on its nature and play a huge role in people’s lives.

Sea of Japan is almost entirely corresponds to a tectonic depression with significant depths. The continental shallow within its limits, narrow, prevailing depths over 2000 m, and the maximum — 3720 m. At the same time, the Straits connecting the Japan sea with ocean and other seas, shallow. Therefore the bulk of the waters of the sea of Japan has a constant temperature (about 0°C) and temperature of surface waters under the influence of currents vary from place to place and by seasons. From the South permeates through the Korean Strait Tsushima warm current, which is a branch of the warm Kuroshio. It heats the part of the sea adjacent to the Japanese Islands, and there causes a high temperature on the surface water in winter +13°C and in summer up to +25°C. In the North-West rises to the surface and cold deep water formation compensation of cold Primorye current, which causes a strong temperature decrease at the West coast (in summer +13° C). But the winter temperature of water on the surface does not fall below 0° C and the sea does not freeze.

The salinity of the water in the sea of Japan due to the low river flow is the same everywhere and is close to 34‰.

The presence of warm and cold waters in the sea of Japan creates favourable conditions for the development of rich fauna and flora. There are caught large amounts of herring, flounders, cod, halibut, sardines, salmon and other cold-water and thermophilic fishes. Are of commercial value also seals, crabs, some molluscs. In the composition of the flora is rich in many Japanese sea algae, has practical value.

The yellow sea origin, to the peculiarities of bottom topography and water regime differs from the Japanese. It really juts out into the mainland and its greater part is located within the continental shelf. The depth of its bays rarely exceeds 30 m and the maximum depth of sea is only 106 m. The yellow sea is under the strong influence of the continent and is characterized by large temperature fluctuations by seasons. Summer surface waters in the southern part warms up to +26, +27° C, in winter the North-Western part is covered by ice, and in the South the water temperature does not exceed +6, +8° C. the Salinity is somewhat lower oceanic everywhere, and in the bays down to 25‰. The direction and nature of flows about the same as in the sea of Japan: along the shores of the Peninsula of Korea is a stream of relatively warm waters from the East China sea in the West; near the mainland coast and relatively cold desalinated water is heading South. In the sea there are high tides. In their bays and reaches a height of 9-10 m. by the rivers Abundantly silty and sandy material gives the yellowish color of the water. Hence the name sea. Its waters are rich in different species of game fish — including eels, herrings, breams, etc.

The East China sea less isolated from the ocean than the Japanese and Yellow. In the East it is limited by the small chain of the Ryukyu Islands; in the South, bordering the South China sea, is the island of Taiwan. The Western part of the East China sea lies within the continental shelf, where the depth ranges from 30 to 160 m. the Eastern part of the basin is occupied by the hollow with a maximum depth of 2719 m. This relatively warm sea, and its southern and Eastern parts of widespread coral buildings. In the East is held constant warm current that gives rise to the flow of the Kuroshio. In the Western part is dominated by a seasonal flow related to the monsoon circulation. Surface water temperature in summer reaches +27, +28° C. In winter the water temperature increases from North-West to South-East from +7 to +16° C. the Fauna of the East China sea is very rich. There are large mammals: whales, dolphins. A lot of different fish: sardines, flounder, mackerel, eel, fish is sounding from the family gorbyleva. The commercial values have also lobsters, crabs and sea cucumbers (sea cucumbers).

The most extensive marine basin of the Pacific ocean off the coast of Asia — the South China sea. It lies between the Northern tropic and the equator and refers to the system of water basins of Southeast Asia.

Internal differences within the East Asia situation are determined by different climatic zones, contrasts between mainland and island parts and the diversity of structure and topography.

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