Features of nature in Central Asia.

 

Central Asia, including arid and semi-arid plains, plateaus and highlands. V. limited on the southern part of the Great Khingan, Y. longitudinal tectonic depression of the upper Indus and Brahmaputra. On Z. C. and the border of Central Asia corresponds to the mountain ranges of the Eastern Kazakhstan, Altai, Western and Eastern Sayan.

Relief . Central Asia has a larger height, and clearly distinguished 2 basic tiers of relief. Form the lower tier of the Gobi, Alashan, Ordos, Tarim and Dzungarian plains, the average altitude of 500-1500 m. of which Upper tier — Tibetan plateau, within which the average height increase up to 4-4,5 thousand m. Plains and plateaus are isolated from each other linearly extended mountain ranges of the Eastern Tien Shan, Kunlun, Nan Shan, Mongolian Altai, Karakorum, etc. Gandisyshan the Highest point of the Central Asia — Chogori in Karakorum (8611 m). Axial geological structure of Central Asia is the Western continuation of the Sino-Korean platform. S. with this group of arrays is framed Mongol-Kazakh, and Y. — Kurlansky belts of Paleozoic folded structures. C. on the Tibetan plateau, within Changtan, manifested Mesozoic folding. The modern relief is notable for the complex combination of gravelly and sandy plains (with the areas of hummocks), mountain chains and massifs, the highest of which are Alpine landforms.

Climate . In winter over Central Asia is the Asian anticyclone, while in summer the area of low atmospheric pressure with a predominance of moisture-depleted air masses of oceanic origin. The climate is sharply continental and dry, with considerable seasonal and daily fluctuations of temperatures. Average temperatures of January on plains from -10 to -25 °C, from 20 July to 25 °C (on the Tibetan plateau near 10 °C). Annual precipitation on the plains usually not privyshaet 200 mm, and such areas as the Takla-makan desert, Gobi, Tsaidam, Changtan plateau, receives less than 50 mm, less evaporation. Most rainfall in summer. In the mountain ranges precipitation is 300-500 mm, and Y.-Q. where was influenced by the summer monsoon, up to 1000 mm per year. For Central Asia is characterised by strong winds and plenty of sunshine (240-270 per year).

A reflection of the dry climate of Central Asia is a considerable height of the snow line, up to Kunlun Shan and the Nan Shan 5-5,5 thousand m, and on the Tibetan plateau, in Changtan, — 6-7 thousand meters (the highest its position on the globe). Therefore, despite the vast height of the mountains, snow in them a little, and intermountain valleys and plains in winter is usually snow-free. Surface water. Due to the dry climate of Central Asia is characterized by low water cuts. Most of the territory refers to areas of internal drainage, forming a number of closed basins (Tarim, Junggar, Zaganski, the Great lakes Basin, etc.). The main rivers of Central Asia — the Tarim, Khotan, Aksu, — originate in peripheral high mountain ranges and entering the plains a significant portion of their flow infiltrates into the unconsolidated sediments of the foothill areas, vaporized and expended in the irrigation of fields; therefore, downstream flow probability is usually reduced, and many of them are dry or carry water only during the summer floods, caused mainly by melting of snow and ice in the mountains of Central Asia the Most arid areas of Central Asia are almost devoid of surface streams. Their surface is covered by dry riverbeds in which water appears only after occasional heavy rains. The runoff to the oceans are only the outskirts of Central Asia, in the mountains, where originate the great rivers of Asia: yellow river, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween, Brahmaputra, Indus, Irtysh, Selenga, and Amur. In Central Asia there are many lakes, the largest of them is lake kukunor, and most deep — Khubsugul. The largest number of lakes on the Tibetan plateau. Many of them are the final floods (for example, Lobnor), so that their outlines and dimensions change frequently depending on fluctuations in river flows. Dominated by the great salt lake. The predominant soil types are brown on the S., in the deserts of Northwest China — gray-brown desert, on the Tibetan plateau is permafrost-affected soils of cold high altitude deserts. In the depressions, solonchaks and takyrs. In the upper mountain zone — the mountain-meadow (S) mountain-forest soils. The soil of the plains of Central Asia are usually low-powered, almost devoid of humus, often contain large amounts of carbonates and gypsum; considerable areas of sandy and stony deserts are generally deprived of soil cover. In the mountains — Grybauskaite and gravelly soils. For the most part on the plains of Central Asia, vegetation cover loose, desert and semi-desert vegetation, its species composition is poor. The predominant dwarf shrub vegetation. Significant areas of takyrs, salt marshes. loose sand devoid of vegetation. On the Tibetan plateau vegetation is often represented by creeping bushes of Eurotia, and in the hollows, sheltered from cold winds, — sedge, kobresia, reaumuria, bluegrass, fescue. C. for semi-desert and desert steppes are replaced, in the composition of vegetation dominated by Stipa, achnatherum, vostres, zhitnyak. On sat. the mountain slopes — areas of coniferous forests of spruce, fir, larch. The transit valleys of many rivers (the Tarim river. Hotan, Aksu, Konchedarya), in the deserts and oases of the foothill — strip of riparian woodland with a predominance of poplar poplar, oleaster and buckthorn. Along the banks of reservoirs — cane and reed thickets.

49. Features of nature in South-Eastern China, North – Eastern China and the Korean Peninsula .

The region’s Terrain is dominated by mountains: to the North the Great and Small Khingan, in southern – highlands Liaoxi, in the East system of the Manchu-Korean mountains. These mining facilities include the amphitheatre of the plain Sunleo (Mangzhurskoy) and the Amur-Sungariskiy lowland. The Central part of the lowlands, occupied by the floodplains of the rivers Sungari, Nonsan (Nonnie), Liao river, flat, often swampy. Places to the surface are chains of hills or low ridges of the island that divides the lowland into a number of more or less closed parts. Along the Eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula medium-altitude stretch of the East China mountains, which in its Northern part are particularly skalistoe, steep, wild gorges with numerous waterfalls. The Western part of the Peninsula has nizagara-hilly terrain. Quite a large area is occupied by plains. Climate is characterized by a pronounced seasonality. Winters are cold and snowy. Precipitation is 50-200 mm. Summers are warm (>20oC) and moist (60-65% of annual precipitation). The climate In China is continental, which contributes to the preservation of permafrost in the Northern territory. Most rainfall in the East, in the Eastern Manchurian mountains (>700 mm per year) to the West, rainfall varies from 300-500mm. Coniferous-broad-leaved forests on brown podzolic soils cover the slopes of the Eastern-Manchurian mountains. On the South they are replaced by broadleaf on brown forest soils. On the Liaodong coast – pine-deciduous, transition to subtropical. On the Manchurian plain forests are replaced by forest-steppes and meadow steppes. In the East-Manchurian mountains to 5 vertical zones – deciduous, mixed, coniferous forests, thickets, and subalpine meadows. In the southern part of the Great Khingan 2 zones – forest and steppe. On the Peninsula of Korea is dominated by permanently wet mixed and deciduous forests. In the far South Peninsula – evergreen forests of oak, Magnolia etc. and Abundant shrub layer, numerous bamboos. In South Korea, is a belt of coniferous forests of Korean pine, Korean spruce, etc.

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