History of the conflict between North Korea and South Korea
The armed forces of South Korea are in the highest degree of combat readiness in connection with the firing by the DPRK to the South Korean island Yeonpyeong in the area of the demilitarized zone, Reuters reported .
The origins of the current tensions on the Korean Peninsula were laid in 1945, when the end of the Second world war.
Until 1945 Korea was a colony of Japan, her General-governorship. The defeat of the red Army troops of the Kwantung army of Japan led to the release of North Korea in August 1945. By agreement between the allies on an Antihitlerite coalition in Korea were determined for 2 time zones to receive the surrender of the Japanese army: Soviet – North of 38th parallel and American – in the South.
In September 1945, in the South of the country has landed troops in the USA.
In 1947 the question of the establishment in Korea of a single state on the US initiative referred to the discussion of the UN, adopted the decision to hold elections monitored by the UN Commission.
In may 1948 in South Korea held parliamentary elections and on August 15, 1948 proclaimed the Republic of Korea.
In response to the North held elections to the Supreme people’s Assembly of Korea on 9 September 1948 proclaimed the Democratic people’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Military-political contradictions between the States with different socio-political system led, in the early 1950‑ies for war.
The conflict began on 25 June 1950 . In the fighting on the side of the Republic of Korea participated contingents of U.S. forces and 15 other countries operating under the flag of the UN multinational force, on the side of the DPRK – the contingents of the armed forces of China and the USSR.
In July of 1951, the front stabilized roughly along the 38th parallel, where military operations began. The war acquired a positional character. By the spring of 1953 it became clear that the price of victory for either party would be too high. On 27 July 1953 in Panmunjom Agreement was signed ceasefire .
According to the armistice Agreement North and South Korea are divided by a military demarcation line, on either side of which is a demilitarized zone with a total width of 4 kilometers.
The Korean Peninsula technically still at war since the Korean war ended with a truce, not a peace Treaty. It was signed by the commanders of the DPRK and China on one side and the USA under the UN flag on the other.
In July 1972 Joint statement signed by North and South, in which are recorded the basic principles of the Association independently, without reliance on external power; peacefully; based on “great national unity”.
The unification of the country in Pyongyang you see through the creation of the Confederation (confederal democratic Republic of Koryo) according to the formula “one nation, one state, two systems, two governments”.
In 1991, the DPRK and ROK signed the Agreement on reconciliation, non-aggression, cooperation and exchanges, in 1992, adopted a Joint Declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
13-15 June 2000 in Pyongyang held the first ever inter-Korean summit. According to the results of Kim Jong Il and former President Kim Dae-Jung signed a Joint Declaration the North and the South (15 June), now considered as a fundamental instrument in the unification issues in the long term. In the Declaration, in particular, announced the intention of the parties to achieve the reunification of the country “by the Korean nation”.
2-4 October 2007 in Pyongyang held the second inter-Korean summit, the results of which Kim Jong-Il and ROK President Roh Moo-Hyun signed a “Declaration on inter-Korean relations, peace and prosperity”, which develops the ideas and principles of the Joint Declaration of 2000.
A characteristic feature of the development of political dialogue, relations between the North and South is their instability, susceptibility to sharp UPS and downs. While inter-Korean economic cooperation in recent years has grown reasonably steadily.
According to Korean customs administration, in 2009, inter-Korean trade amounted to 1 billion 666 million dollars.
According to statistics, South Korean Ministry of national unification, currently tolling trade with the DPRK carried out about 200 South Korean companies, the total trading volume for 2009 amounted to 254 million dollars.
The largest current collaborative projects are Kumasaka tourist area (currently the project is temporarily suspended), the Kaesong industrial zone, connection of Railways and roads between the North and South on the East and West coasts.
South Korea has provided the North with significant economic and humanitarian assistance.
However, the relations of the two Koreas deteriorated after coming to power in 2008, South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak, who refused to cooperate with North Korea until the nuclear issue is resolved. Pyongyang possesses nuclear weapons and is not going to abandon it, yet feel threatened by the US.
Border incidents between the two Koreas are ongoing.
In 2010, the DPRK and South Korea has twice – in January and August exchanged artillery volleys in the North demarcation line in the Yellow sea, which is the subject of a border dispute between Seoul and Pyongyang.
South Korean military said serious provocations by North Korea and demanded an end to all actions of this nature.
At the end of October 2010, soldiers of the DPRK and the RoK exchanged shots from automatic rifles in the demilitarized zone (DMZ). In connection with the situation in the DMZ has been enhanced the combat readiness of South Korean troops.
Inter-Korean relations have also significantly complicated the incident with the Corvette Cheonan. The ship sank on 26 March 2010 in the Yellow sea near Seoul-controlled island of Baengnyeongdo (Baengnyeong) near the border with North Korea as a result of strong explosion, the cause of which is not established. Before sinking, the ship, carrying out a routine patrol of the area was split in two. On Board were 104 persons, killing 46 sailors.
In Seoul in the destruction of the ship accused Pyongyang. although the DPRK considers the results of investigation of falsification.
23 November 2010 there was another armed incident. North Korea shelled Yeonpyeong island in the area of the demilitarized zone in response to South Korean military exercises. South Korea has returned artillery fire. In the area of the incident flew fighters F-16 air force of South Korea, gave Reuters.