Philosophy of Japanese gardens
Why not: “the art of creating a Japanese garden” or “technique” or “principles of creation”, namely the philosophy of Japanese gardens? Because the Japanese are incredibly self-sufficient I. a Distinctive feature of Japanese culture is its contemplation, the aestheticism, the ability to peer into the subject for understanding its essence, to admire its beauty, which is understood as a sophistication. The art of beauty vostorgalis (Keim), is revered by the Japanese as the most important feature of their perception of the world. The basis of thinking the Japanese are three principles: the ability to assimilate foreign culture, turning, her in his transferee; love of native place (furusato); the so-called three-valued logic. The Japanese removed the opposition of light and darkness, good and evil, introducing a third opposition, as if distantly, objectively evaluates both the beginning. thereby allowing harmoniously inevitable in a dualistic model of confrontation.
In the main Shinto doctrine – the deification of nature, the emphasis on sobstvennoi of the tradition before meeting with mainland culture. Shintoism preaches only the cleanliness and order of things. all the things of the world spiritualized, purity gives the opportunity to exude things in their essence, for in each one dwells kami – a spirit, a deity. The order in which each thing in its place – according to the world integrity, a close relationship. a kind of kinship one with everything. The power of life, love-sexual intercourse will vystupaet in Shinto as a natural, pure and life-giving, for loving closeness born of the gods Shinto world. The deification of nature in Shinto is not caused by fear of her power, and is born out of a sense of admiration for her blagodariu. Shinto ancient Japanese tradition culture contained philosophical ideas of nature worship in General, and in particular, the cult of flowers, which later merged with the Buddhist of a common cultural thread. The influence of Buddhism manifested threefold: so plum that bloom every spring, begins to act as a symbol of eternity, but it is recognized as a sign of the impermanence of the world, because it is very fast flowering. Buddhism postulated primordial unity of the world and man embodied in absolute nature, spilled all over the world, of course, assumed the existence in each thing, each phenomenon is hidden, the hidden “soul”, “heart” (Kokoro). And the ability to sense and feel the soul of each thing meant that this person feels and is experiencing a “mono-no aware”, which connects the “heart” of the person with the “heart” of things, attaching it to the universe. “Mono no aware but the” – proylene things, the sad charm of things is the Central aesthetic concept of the whole era. This notion determined the character of literature, of painting, of ikebana and, of course, gardening.
Colors and their ratio are predetermined by the cycle of the elements and a base element (SYN). Each of these elements is associated with a particular color, with one of the cardinal directions and the center, with the five main planets. Their interconversion and define the changing seasons.
Green is the personification of spring, it expresses the essence of the primary element of the tree and symbolizes the East, for there is born and the day spring, as the beginning of the year. Zhelany the color associated with Jupiter, with mysterious bluish-green color. The primary element of the element of fire embodies the color red – the color of summer, the South and the planet Mars. White symbolizes autumn is the time of ripening of white rice, it corresponds to the primary element metal (incandescent), it is associated with the West and whitish color of the moon and the radiance of the planet Venus. The dark, desolate time of year – winter, associated with black color, with the primary element water, with the least bright planet mercury. The symbolism of yellow (Golden) color is associated with the end of summer, symbolizing the life-giving forces of the elements, the earth pervoelementov. It also embodies the idea of the center and associated with the planet Saturn. Green and blue in traditional Chinese and Japanese symbols are often understood as synonyms. The beginning of spring (i.e. New year according to the lunar calendar) meet in green clothes, in the summer day – wear red, at the end of the summer – yellow and the breath of winter – often in the dark. black clothes.
The root cause of the endless process of cyclical change effects. day and night, seasons, permanent death and eternal rebirth of nature lies in the root cause of existence. the answer to this question was looking for thinkers in the ancient naturphilosophie, in the analogy between the processes occurring in nature, and eternal rebirth of the human race. Here is the image of the sky father, the rain fertilizing the earth mother. It formed a picture of the Chinese, and later Japanese that the basis of the universe is the creative collaboration of the feminine and the masculine mn Jan. Accordance with four seasons and graphic symbols there are four main images (sixiang) that represent the four defining qualities of Heaven and Earth. The combination of three solid lines expresses the absolute dominance of male power is the great YANG – SUMMER; the combination of the three broken lines represents the dominance of female power is the great YIN – WINTER; trigram, in which the lower solid line, represents the beginning of growth of male power is YANG young – SPRING; and the trigram in which the lower interrupted line, represents the birth and the strengthening of the forces of the feminine, this is a young YIN – AUTUMN.
The real story of the life of the famous master of the tea ceremony of Rikyu Senno. His garden is famous for the beautiful flowers he wanted to see the then ruler, the shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Early in the morning he came to him in the garden, and great was his surprise when he saw that all the flowers cut off and just one ikebana made in his honor. The owner of the guest explained his strange behavior: “Lots of flowers scattered your attention, and this one, the most beautiful, designed to embody the beauty of the whole garden.”
As in ikebana and in the garden – the Japanese masters are committed to the utmost rigor, even in the laconic form, paying particular attention to the most simple and humble plants.
The Japanese occupation brought any to professional excellence, they in no way tolerate dilettantism, everyone does only his job as a professional. Master in perfection must be proficient in their craft, then the product will be released from the hands by itself. In the composition of the garden master is not demonstrated, but rather hid the fact that she’s projektowania certain rules that it has not lost its naturalness, and seemed born of the nature.