A state in the northeastern part of Asia, located in the South of the Korean Peninsula. In the North the country borders with the Korean People-but-Demokraticheskoi Republic (length of 238 km border). In the West, South Korea is washed by the Yellow sea, on the East by the sea of Japan, in the South-East, the Korean Strait separates the country from Japan. The coastline is 2 413 km. the Total area of the country 98480 km2. The topography of the country is hills and mountains. Main mountain range – the Eastern Korean mountains, situated along the Eastern coast. The highest point in the country is mount Hala-San is on the island Jeju-do. The shores of the sea of Japan is mountainous straightforward. Coast of the Korean Strait and the Yellow sea mostly flat, with numerous bays and coves. Almost all valleys are located in this region. The main rivers are the Han and Naktongan. Major minerals: tungsten, iron, manganese, copper ore, gold, silver. Arable land covers 21% of the territory.
The population is 45 552 882 (1995), the average population density of about 463 persons per km 2. The ethnic composition homogeneous: almost all residents – Koreans, relatively small decreases in the proportion of the population are Chinese. The official language of Korean Buddhism is professed by 27% of population, Christianity – 24%, other religions – Confucianism, chondogyo. Fertility – 15,63 Novo of births per 1,000 people (1995). Mortality – 6.18 of smartel tion of outcome per 1,000 (infant mortality rate of 20.9 deaths per 1000 births). Life expectancy: men 68 years, women – 74 years (1995). The working-age population is 20 000 000, the service sector employs 52%, industry – 27% of the working population, in agriculture – 21%.
The climate is monsoon temperate; subtropical in the South. Average annual rainfall – 900 – 1 500 mm. long, Frequent showers, especially in summer. The average January temperature is 4°C, July 26°C.
The country is dominated by mixed coniferous and deciduous forests with predominance of pine, spruce, maple, poplar, elm, Korean fir. To the South they are replaced by subtropical evergreen forests. For coastal zones typical of Laurel, evergreen oak, thickets of bamboo.
Among representatives of fauna of the country can be noted the tiger, leopard, bear, lynx, the number of which have recently declined sharply due to deforestation and poaching.
Polity, political parties
The full name is the Republic of Korea. State structure – Republic. In the country 9 provinces, Seoul and Busan have a special administrative status. The independence of the Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 15 August 1948 (national holiday – independence Day). The Executive power belongs to President (head of state) and the State Council headed by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Parliament – the National Assembly. Major political parties: liberal Democratic party, Democratic party, United people’s party.
Economy, transport communications
Economic growth of South Korea in the last decade – among the highest in the world. GNP amounted in 1994 to $ 508,3 billion (the GNP percapita population will – $ 270 11). Leading industries: machinery manufacturing, shipbuilding, production of electronics and electrical engineering, textile, food. Main crops (agriculture accounts for 11% of GNP) – rice, barley, sweet potato, soybean; also developed forestry and fisheries. Monetary unit – won (W). Major trading partners: USA, Japan.
The total length of Railways – 6 763 km, and of highways 63 200 km, inland waterways – 1 of about 609 km. the country’s Main ports: Busan and Mokpo.
In 2-1 centuries BC the territory of modern Korea was a Chinese colony. In 37 BC in Northern Korean Peninsula appeared the Korean state of Goguryeo, and the southern part was divided into two kingdoms: Silla and Pekche. In the late 10th century Korean States were United under the rule of Koryo dynasty. When the Mongols invaded Korea in 1321 Royal court fled to the island of Jeju-do. During the reign of the Korean Lee dynasty (1392-1910), the country suffered from invasions of the Japanese (late 16th century) and the Manchus (V. 18), and in the 19th century became a matter of dispute between China, Japan and Russia. Annexed by Japan in 1910, Korea was fighting against Japanese invaders in 1938 and achieved independence in 1943, but was divided along the 38th parallel into two parts: the Soviet zone of occupation and American troops. In 1948 there was a division of Korea into two States – in the Northern part of the country was proclaimed the people’s Democratic Republic, and to the South the Republic of Korea. In addition to numerous border conflicts with North Korea, which degenerated into war that lasted from 1950 to 1953 South Korea was drawn into an armed conflict with Vietnam in 1965-1972, 1980. in the country was established dictatorship of General Chun Doo-hwan, which lasted until 1987, when the first democratic elections the country’s President was From Roh Tae-Woo, who was replaced in 1993 Kim young-Sam. After the opposition accused the government of Ro De At of corruption and financial fraud, on a dock there were many high-ranking officials, including former President Ro De U.
In Seoul among architectural monuments of remarkable pagoda GenMethod Popchusa temple (1085), the Palace ensemble Ken-bokkun with parks and yards, which was built in 1394, which was destroyed in the 16th century and reconstructed in the 19th century In the capital are: national Museum, national science Museum, Botanical garden, zoo.